What else can thermal imaging see? Let's take a look at the smoke ring from the volcano.
What else can thermal imaging see? Let's take a look at the smoke ring from the volcano.
Sometimes, volcanoes also "smoke rings."

sometimes, volcanoes also "smoke rings".

(a dynamic picture of a volcanic "smoke ring")

like the small experiments of people spitting smoke rings or making smoke rings, these are "vortex rings" phenomena that require air flow fast enough to rush out of smaller openings to form. Strictly speaking, however, what the volcano emits is not a smoke ring, and the white we see is mainly from the water mist formed by the cooling and condensation of water vapor.

(a sketch of a vortex ring, picture from: sciencefriday)

and recently I found a more special version: thermal imaging to see the "smoke ring" emitted by the volcano. BEN SIMONS

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previously, volcanologists have not done much research on the phenomenon of ejecting smoke rings. However, according to the report of National Geographic, a group of researchers made a lot of observations on this problem some time ago, and made model calculations based on the data obtained.

they reported on the study of volcanic smoke circles at the meeting, but the paper has not been officially published, so I haven't found the details. However, the researchers' general explanation for the volcanic smoke circle is as follows: during the rise of the magma, the gases dissolved in it precipitate to form bubbles; if the viscosity of the magma is appropriate (not too high), then the bubbles can merge together to form larger high-pressure bubbles; the high-pressure bubbles rise near the crater and burst quickly, in which hot steam spews out quickly to form a vortex ring. At the same time the gas expands and cools. The shape of the crater which is close to the circle and more uniform is beneficial to the formation of the "smoke ring".

Source: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/08/volcanoes-blow-smoke-rings-now-we-know-how/

more Reading: methods of making smoke rings from beverage bottles and balloon membranes